[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]La verificación de la integridad de un pilote es un punto importante en todo trabajo de pilotaje, siendo los pilotes excavados alguno de los que pueden presentar fallas durante el vertido del hormigón.
Una forma de verificación es el Método de Impacto, en el que se genera un impacto en la cabeza del pilote y se mide la respuesta de rebote mediante acelerómetros colocados también en la cabeza del pilote. Pueden ser de alta o baja deformación.
El método de baja deformación también se conoce como ensayo eco o sónico y resulta el más práctico y rápido en cuanto a su implementación ya que el impacto en la cabeza del pilote se genera con un martillo de mano ligero. Este impacto genera un tren de ondas que se trasmite a lo largo del pilote a una velocidad que dependerá de las características del material. En el hormigón esta velocidad de propagación varía entre los valores de 3500 y 4000 m/s, pudiendo ser mayor en los casos de elementos prefabricados.
Cuando hay un cambio geométrico o de las características del material que constituye el pilote o un cambio importante en la rigidez del terreno, se refleja parte de la energía hacia la cabeza de este. Es así que mediante un análisis de las ondas reflejadas es posible detectar cambios significativos en las propiedades del pilote.
[/vc_column_text][vc_column_text]Los cambios en las características geométricas (forma del pilote) o en las propiedades del material que lo constituye y que producen ecos que permiten diagnosticar el estado del pilote, son: el área de la sección transversal del pilote, la densidad del material y el módulo de elasticidad o velocidad de transmisión de la onda en el material.
Con este ensayo se puede estimar:
- La longitud de las fundaciones (variaciones con respecto a lo especificado ± 10%).
- Las inclusiones mayores al 25% de la sección transversal de cualquier material con diferentes propiedades acústicas.
- Cambios en la sección transversal.
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25 comentarios en “¿CÓMO PUEDO SABER SI LOS PILOTES QUE ESTOY CONSTRUYENDO SE EJECUTARON BIEN? PUESTO QUE QUEDAN COMPLETAMENTE ENTERRADOS”
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